Diabetes Mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by abnormal glucose metabolism in the following form:
- Less production of insulin by the pancreas.
- Insulin manufactured is not utilized by the body.
It includes hyperglycemia (elevated blood glucose), polyphagia (increased appetite), polyuria (increased urination), polydypsia (increased thirst), nocturia and unplanned weight loss.
Factors Causing Diabetes Mellitus:
Classification of Diabetes Mellitus:
Type 1 (IDDM): Insulin dependant Diabetes Mellitus commonly appears in youth but can occur at any age. It requires insulin to prevent ketosis.
Type 2 (NIDDM): Non Insulin Dependant Diabetes Mellitus usually appears in middle age.
Type 3 (Gestational Diabetes): It occurs during pregnancy but blood glucose level reverts to normal after parturition.
Type 4 (Secondary Diabetes Mellitus): It is a different type of diabetes which may be associated with pancreatic disease,drug reactions or hormonal changes etc.
Type 5 (Impaired Glucose Tolerance): In this type of Diabetes, plasma glucose levels are abnormal but not beyond the normal range to be diagnosed as Diabetes.
Management of Diabetes is very essential since uncontrolled diabetes can lead to neuropathy, nephropathy and subjects are also susceptible to elevated cholesterol levels which can further affect the heart.
The plan is to live a healthy life by maintaining your weight and reducing weight if overweight, by avoiding overindulgence, eating right and exercising. Bring your game to the field or walk for half an hour everyday or do other exercise which fits your age and physical ability.
The regulation of diet is very important aspect of Diabetic management. Some restrictions in carbohydrate and fat in the diet helps in the treatment. Distribution of calories should be as follows:
- Carbohydrate: 55-60%
- Protein: 12-15%
- Saturated Fat: <10%
- Polyunsaturated Fat: 6-8 %
Complex polysaccharides, 40-50 grams of fiber per day, and modest amounts of sucrose can be taken depending on blood glucose control.
0.8 -1 grams per kg of body weight. Protein can be taken unless renal disease is present.
Less than 30% fat is allowed, which should be divided into:
- <10% PUFA
- <10% Saturated Fat
- 10-15% MUFA
Limit cholesterol intake to under 300 mg per day.
3,000 mg per day is allowed.
IDDM patients should take meals on time depending upon their insulin. Diabetics should use non-fat milk and milk powder.
Role of GI Foods in Controlling Diabetes
The glycemic index (GI) assigns carbohydrate containing foods a number based on how they affect your blood sugar, after you eat them. Foods with a GI less than 55 cause only a little blip in blood sugar but those in the 55-70 range will raise it a little higher. Carbs with a GI more than 70 send blood sugar soaring. Nutrition experts say that low GI carbs are healthy and high GI carbs in excess are not.
Glycemic Index at a Glance
The GI index measures the rate at which food converts to glucose. Higher numbers indicate a more rapid absorption of glucose, which is assigned a value of 100.
Glycemic Index Food Chart
|Whole wheat bread||72|
Food Exchange Per Day For Diabetics Chart
|FOOD GROUP||1,200 calories||1,800 calories||2,000 calories|
Obesity is on the rise with the growing popularity of convenience and fast foods. This can further lead to the rising epidemic of Diabetes, which can be fatal if not checked and controlled. Insulin injections before or after a meal is not a life you would imagine for yourself. The bottom line is to try to follow a diet in moderation in your walk of life!