Fitness Quiz – Test Your Health IQ and Fitness Knowledge

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Almost everyone has a fitness goal they want to reach. The first weapon in your arsenal should be knowledge. How much do you really know about diet, exercise and overall health and fitness? Well, you’re about to find out! Take the quiz below and answer over 150 questions in order to find out how smart you really are! These quiz questions consist of a combination of many different areas of health and wellness which is designed to test a wide range of topics, which include:

  • Health and Fitness
  • Diet and Exercise
  • Low Carb Diets
  • Exercise Myths
  • Nutrition and Dieting
  • Eating Disorders
  • Addictions
  • Vitamins and Minerals
  • Celebrity Diets
  • Allergies
  • Vegetarian Diets
  • Protein
  • Weight Loss
  • Weight Training
  • Calorie Counting
  • Fad Diets
  • Beverage Calories

The answers are included at the bottom of this page, so if you’re having a difficult time on a specific question, feel free to scroll all the way down and get a little help!

Health and Fitness Quiz Questions:

NumberQuestions
1If you do both weight training and cardio in the same session, which should come first? ( weight training or cardio )
2Exercise gives you an energy boost? ( true or false )
3You're stuck with the metabolic rate you're born with? ( true or false )
4If you think you've injured a muscle, immediately apply ice. ( true or false )
5Which type of exercise is the best way to burn fat? ( vigorous, moderate, it doesn't matter )
6Which of the following fruits has the highest content of vitamin C per average serving size? ( banana, kiwi, papaya, strawberry, orange )
7For optimal fat burning, immediately prior to long & slow cardio training session, you should eat? ( nothing, simple carbs, complex carbs, protein, protein & simple carbs )
8For optimal lean muscle mass building, 30 minutes prior to weight training, you should eat? ( nothing, simple carbs, complex carbs, protein & low-to-moderate GI carbs )
9If you are regularly physically active and your goal is to gain lean muscle mass, you should consume how many grams of lean protein per pound of body weight? ( 1 gram, 3 grams, 5 grams )
10If you are performing plyometric exercises while training, you are performing? ( slow deliberate movements, twisting movements, slow breathing techniques, explosive movements, rapid breathing techniques )
11If you just train the quads while ignoring the opposing muscle, you could? ( tear your achilles, get a stinger, pull your hamstring and end up with severe muscle imbalance, end up with a hip pointer )
12The only way to lose weight is to cut calories drastically? ( true or false )
13Low carb diets are extremely healthy. ( true or false )
14Eat as much as you want when you exercise and you will still lose weight. ( true or false )
15During the upward movement phase of the squat exercise, the muscles of the quadriceps are contracted? ( isokinetically, concentrically, eccentrically, isometrically )
16Which of the following physical adaptations will occur within the trained muscle tissue of an individual engaging in regular moderate intensity cardiovascular endurance training? ( increase in aerobic enzyme concentrations, increase in the number of mitochondria, increase in the number of capillaries )
17Initial strength gains seen during the first few weeks of a resistance-training program are primarily attributed to? ( changes in Type I muscle fiber to Type II muscle fibers, neural adaptations, increases in the cross sectional size of the muscle )
18Protein may contribute as much as _______% of the body's total energy demand during exercise? ( 40%, 25%, 15%, 5% )
19A food source with 5 grams of protein, 10 grams of fat and 20 grams of carbohydrates contains how many calories? ( 35 calories, 165 calories, 190 calories, 240 calories )
20Of the movements listed below, which would a subject have the most difficulty performing if they experience range of motion deficiencies in the latissimus dorsi? ( shoulder horizontal abduction, shoulder extension, shoulder flexion )
21Which of the following exercises can be used as an effective dynamic stretch for the iliopsoas muscle group? ( back squats, seated row, forward lunge, leg extension, upright row )
22Which repetition range will elicit the greatest increases in absolute strength when training to repetition maximum? ( greater than 16 repetitions, 12-15 repetitions, 8-10 repetitions, 3-5 repetitions )
23Which of the following situations should be avoided when programming resistance training for children? ( performing overhead lifting activities, utilizing free weights for resistance, lifting resistance loads greater than 10RM )
24Which of the following statements is correct regarding the proper execution of the Romanian Deadlift exercise? ( isometrically contract the core musculature to maintain a flat back position throughout the movement performance, flex the neck to reduce cervical stress, lock the knees to increases the resistance applied to the hip extensors, relax the back extensors to allow the movement to be performed through a full range of motion )
25You measure your body composition and estimate your body fat to be 20%. If you currently weigh 200 pounds, what is your predicted total fat mass in pounds? ( 20 lbs, 40 lbs, 60 lbs, 80 lbs )
26Which person is NOT a low-carb diet advocate? ( Dr. Robert Atkins, Dr. Dean Ornish, Dr. Richard Bernstein, Dr. Michael Eades )
27What type of foods should be avoided or severely restricted on a low-carb diet? ( Meats, Eggs, Grains, Vegetables )
28How Long have Low Carb Diets Existed? ( Under 10 years, 10-20 years, 20-40 years, over 40 years )
29What is the GI Value of a Food? ( Its Glucose Inducing Value, Its Gastro-Intestinal Value )
30Beans break down into sugar slower than instant rice. ( true or false )
31Which one is NOT an artificial sweetener that can be used on many low-carb diet programs? ( NutraSweet, Fructose, Sugar Alcohol, Splenda )
32When you have to have fast food, what's your least offensive option? ( Salad with low-fat dressing, No-bun burger, Baked potato with sour cream, Grilled chicken BBQ sandwich )
33A low-carb diet calls for less than 20 percent of calories from carbs. ( true or false )
34Which of the following statements about the glycemic index (GI) is true? ( The higher the GI the better the food is for regulating your blood sugar, Foods with a low GI are converted to glucose more quickly so their sugars enter the bloodstream more quickly, GI is a system that ranks foods by how fast and how high they cause blood sugar to rise after eating a particular food, The lower the GI the greater the effect the food will have on your insulin levels )
35Which of the following is the most restrictive of the low-carb diets? ( South Beach, Weight Watchers, The Zone, Atkins )
36It is generally recommended not to count _____ as an effective or usable carbohydrate? ( Starch, Fiber, Sugar, None of the Above )
37At cocktail hour, the low-carb dieter should order? ( Beer, Cosmopolitan, Screwdriver, Glass of wine )
38Which foods are typically acceptable on a low-carb lifestyle? ( Berries, Cheese, Fish, All the Above )
39What are Carbs? ( Salts, Fats, Sugars and Starches, Tannins )
40When you decide to begin a low-carb diet, you should do what FIRST? ( Get an initial blood test and physical exam, Get rid of all the fruit in your house, Buy a supply of ketosis test strips, Pig-out on one last carbohydrate binge )
41Fruit breaks down into sugar slower than white bread. ( true or false )
42Which Fat is Unhealthy? ( Trans Fatty Acids, Olive Oil, Canola Oil, Grapeseed Oil )
43If you follow a low-carb diet, you can consume more calories. ( true or false )
44Eating low-GI foods will: ( Stave off heart disease, Prevent type 2 diabetes, Help you evade serious side effects if you have diabetes, Curb your appetite so you lose weight, All of the above )
45Consuming fewer than about 30 grams of carbohydrates per day usually causes a benign condition known as _____. ( Diarrhea, Ketoacidosis, Hyperinsulinism, Ketonuria )
46Do low carb dieters eat veggies? ( Not at all, Only in small amounts, All but the high sugar veggies, Any veggies you want )
47Table sugar (sucrose) breaks down slower in the body than a slice of white bread. ( true or false )
48Which of the following is the best menu on a low-carb diet? ( Broiled salmon, baked potato, and carrots, London broil, baked sweet potato, and broccoli rabe, Pasta primavera, Roasted chicken without skin, jasmine rice, and green peas )
49What's the best low-carb option to satisfy your sweet tooth? ( Angel food cake, Cheesecake, Apple pie, Strawberries dipped in dark chocolate, An oatmeal cookie )
50For the best weight loss results, you should ignore the government's listing of "carbs" on the label and instead focus on "net carbs". ( true or false )
51Before, during, and after my workout, you should do slow static stretches. ( true or false )
52Lack of regular physical activity can be a major causal factor in death. ( true or false )
53It is dangerous for me to exercise because I am too old. ( true or false )
54I have gained a few pounds. The exercise I am doing must not be working at all. ( true or false )
55I do not necessarily need to workout for the recommended time of a half hour three times a week or more to receive benefits. ( true or false )
56Exercise can be beneficial for people suffering from asthma. ( true or false )
57Women can't build muscles like men because they don't have enough testosterone. ( true or false )
58Exercising in the afternoon is the best time to exercise in order to lose weight. ( true or false )
59Strenuous exercise is much more beneficial than light exercise. ( true or false )
60Strength training, although beneficial in building muscle and bone, does nothing for the heart. ( true or false )
61Dieting usually results in permanent weight loss. ( true or false )
62Successful dieting requires sticking to a structured plan for food intake. ( true or false )
63Drinking eight to 12 glasses of water a day will help you lose weight. ( true or false )
64Back and forth dieting is a good way to lose weight. ( true or false )
65If you exercise, it doesn't matter what you eat, because you'll still lose weight. ( true or false )
66Body weight is a good indicator of fitness. ( true or false )
67When it comes to losing weight, it's a good idea to cut back drastically on calories in order to lose weight fast. ( true or false )
68Anorexia and bulimia are illnesses that only affect teenage girls. ( true or false )
69Lifting weights will cause you to become bulky. ( true or false )
70The only way to achieve long-lasting results is to burn more calories through exercise than you intake. ( true or false )
71Eating fatty foods is bad for your health and will cause you to gain weight. ( true or false )
72Diet pills are a great way to speed up your metabolism and shed pounds with little effort. ( true or false )
73If you maintain a consistent workout routine, you will continue to lose weight forever. ( true or false )
74Low-carbohydrate diets are a healthy way to lose weight. ( true or false )
75In order for exercise to be effective, it must be done all at once, every day. ( true or false )
76Nicotine use result in a psychiatric disorder. ( true or false )
77The B-vitamin folate may help prevent all but one of the following? ( birth defects, colon cancer, prostate cancer, stroke, heart disease )
78If you are older than 55, which is the best source of vitamin B-12? ( a vitamin supplement, green leafy vegetables, eggs, poultry, milk )
79All but one of the following can be a sign of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Which one isn't? ( tingling in the feet, blurred vision, mental confusion, excessive thirst, memory loss )
80Which B-vitamin can cause nerve damage if taken in high doses? ( pyridoxine (B-6), niacin (B-3), riboflavin (B-2), thiamin (B-1), cobalamin B-12 )
81All but one of the following may lower the risk of heart disease. Which one doesn't? ( fiber-rich foods, folate, vitamin E, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-2 )
82Getting enough calcium may help cut the risk of which cancer? ( prostate cancer, colon cancer, bladder cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer )
83People over age 50 should get 1,200 mg of calcium a day. That's the amount in all but one of the following. Which one doesn't have that much? ( four cups of calcium-fortified orange juice, five cups of cooked broccoli, nine cups of cottage cheese, six ounces of cheddar cheese, four cups of milk )
84What's the maximum daily dose of calcium that's considered safe? ( 1,500 mg, 2,500 mg, 3,500 mg, 4,500 mg, no limit )
85Vitamin D may help prevent or treat all but one of the following. Which one? ( steoporosis, osteoarthritis, hip fractures, high blood pressure, tachycardia )
86If you're middle-aged, all but one of the following can supply a day's worth of vitamin D. Which one can't? ( four glasses of milk, a highly fortified cereal like Product 19 or Total, exposing your hands, face, and arms to the sun for five to ten minutes two or three times a week in the summer months (anywhere) or at any time of the year (in the South )
87All but one of the following help prevent high blood pressure. Which one doesn't? ( getting enough exercise, eating enough fruits and vegetables, getting enough vitamin E, consuming enough potassium, limiting sodium )
88All but one of these foods are good sources of potassium. Which one isn't? ( chicken, rye bread, dry beans, milk, bananas )
89Though the evidence is sometimes shaky, too much iron can raise the risk of all but one of the following. Which one? ( liver damage, cancer, heart disease, memory loss, hemochromatosis )
90Evidence suggests that all but one of the following lower your risk of diabetes. Which one doesn't? ( getting enough exercise, eating enough potassium, eating enough magnesium, eating fiber-rich foods, staying lean )
91Evidence indicates that all but one of the following may cut the risk of prostate cancer. Which one doesn't? ( eating less meat, vitamin E, selenium, lycopene, magnesium )
92Which is the best source of vitamin E? ( beans, almonds, broccoli, olive oil )
93Which can impair the immune system if taken in large doses? ( vitamin A, zinc, iron, copper, vitamin D )
94According to the latest estimates, how much vitamin C do most people need each day? ( 60 mg, 200 mg, 500 mg, 1,000 mg, 5,000 mg )
95All but one of the following appear to help strengthen bones. Which one doesn't? ( fluoride, vitamin E, vitamin K, vitamin D, vitamin A )
96A deficiency of which nutrient can't be detected by a blood test? ( iron, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, vitamin A )
97Which is the best source of selenium? ( a supplement, fortified breakfast cereal, spinach, whole-wheat bread, orange )
98High doses of vitamin A or its precursor (beta-carotene) may raise the risk of all but one of the following. Which one? ( birth defects, liver damage, lung cancer, colon cancer, nerve damage )
99Which one of the following appears to curb the muscle damage caused by exercise in people older than 55? ( vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin B-1, vitamin A, vitamin D )
100All but one of these foods are good sources of magnesium. Which one isn't? ( yogurt, black beans, spinach, cantaloupe, bran cereal )
101Which one of the following is most likely to improve your memory? ( ginkgo biloba, lecithin, phosphatidyl serine, vitamin E, vitamin A )
102Before noon, Claudia Schiffer eats nothing but: ( Salmon, Fruit, Cottage Cheese, Rice Cakes )
103Joey isn't the only Friend who loves sandwiches. When Jennifer Aniston decided to slim down, she had to give up one of her favorite foods. What type of sandwich was it? ( Steak, BLT, Reuben, Mayonnaise )
104Ashley Judd stays slim by avoiding what type of food? ( Legumes, Dairy, Fruit, Pastries )
105Minnie Driver conquered a 30-pound weight gain and became one of Hollywood's hottest bodies by: ( Drinking 8 glasses of water each day, Eating protein at every meal, Wearing ankle weights when walking around the house, Relying on spirituality )
106Lisa Kudrow says she stays thin by listening to her inner voice, which tells her: ( To do more cardio, That her butt looks big, When she's had enough to eat, Lift more weights )
107To resist fattening treats, Christie Brinkley snacks on: ( Cottage cheese, Rice cake, Protein bars, Sweet potatoes )
108Demi Moore keeps her system cleaned out by: ( Going on a five-day juice fast, Taking an enema, Eating three bowls of bran cereal each day, Drinking herb teas and taking vitamins )
109What is the main source of model Niki Taylor's diet? ( Steak, Tuna, Beans, Vegetables )
110What food does Cindy Crawford tend to avoid to stay slim? ( Fish, Red Meat, Dairy, Beans )
111Jane Seymour satisfies her sweet tooth with: ( Frozen fruit bars, Strawberry protein shakes, Rice cakes, Chocolate protein bars )
112What does Melanie Griffith supplement her diet with? ( Creatine, L-glutamine, Protein bars, Vitamins and minerals )
113What is Julia Roberts known for consuming during filming? ( 2 boxes of fiber rich cereal, 4 protein shakes, 6 flavored rice cakes, 8 glasses of water a day )
114Which diet does TV presenter Claire Sweeney adhere to? ( Atkins diet, Weight Watchers, Zone diet, GI Index diet )
115Which food did Drew Barrymore introduce back into her diet recently? ( Dairy, Meat, Fish, Poultry )
116What is the normal daily caloric intake of supermodel Heidi Klum? ( 1100-1400 calories a day, 1400-1700 calories a day, 1700-2000 calories a day, 2000-2300 calories a day )
117Which of the following factors can predispose you to having allergies? ( A family history of allergies, Environmental Conditions, Number and type of Exposures, Emotional factors, All of the above )
118Hypersensitivity of which system of your body creates an allergic response? ( Skin, Immune System, Circulatory System, Pulmonary System, Digestive System )
119Which of the following treatments can be used to reduce allergic reactions to unavoidable substances? ( Milk thistle three times daily, Mist inhalation therapy, Regularly wearing a face mask, Desensitization (Allergy shots), Regularly wearing a garlic necklace )
120Which of the following is the most commonly prescribed treatment for hives? ( Oral antihistamines, Oral corticosteroids such as prednisone, Epinephrine (adrenaline), Aspirin, Benadryl )
121Which of the following does NOT reduce or delay allergies in children? ( Reducing dust-collecting items, Limiting exposure early in life to indoor furry pets, Avoiding smoking in and around the house, Exclusively wearing cotton clothes )
122Which of the following is not an allergy symptom? ( itching in the mouth, drop in blood pressure, dark circles under the eyes, trouble breathing, all of the above are allergy symptoms )
123A common allergen is cigarette smoke. ( true or false )
124What is the major determining factor in a person's likelihood of developing allergies? ( living in the southern United States where there is a longer pollinating season, eating a lot of peanut butter as a child, having a mother whom suffers from allergies, having both a mother and father who suffer from allergies )
125Children are most likely to outgrow allergies to: ( pollen, milk, peanuts, shellfish )
126One of the most common causes of allergies is: ( airborne pollen, cats, insect stings, peanuts )
127Damp dusting using a dampened cloth or an oiled mop will minimize the distribution of dust through the air. ( true or false )
128Beds should be placed near air vents for good air circulation. ( true or false )
129Grasses, weeds, and trees tend to pollinate during the late afternoon, early evening. ( true or false )
130Allergen-proof encasings should be used for pillows, mattresses, and box springs along with using tape over zippers to help prevent leaks. ( true or false )
131When choosing furnishings, it is best to go with wood, leather, vinyl, or rubberized canvas furniture and avoid upholstered pieces. ( true or false )
132A vegan is a vegetarian who: ( avoids red meat and sugar, eats eggs and milk, eats fish and chicken, eats no animal products )
133Which of the following is a legume? ( barley, rice, peanut, cashew )
134We get most of our energy from protein. ( true or false )
135Proteins are made of amino acids. ( true or false )
136Proteins are used to build and repair tissues in the body. ( true or false )
137How many calories are in 1 gram of protein? ( 2 calories, 4 calories, 6 calories, 9 calories )
138The amount of each of the 20 amino acids in a protein from the body, such a hormone, is identical to another body protein, such as an enzyme. ( true or false )
139The daily protein requirement for a 60 kg male equals: ( 0.8 grams/day, 48 grams/day, 60 grams /day, 120 grams /day )
140Which of the following foods is considered a complete protein? ( eggs, soybean, chicken, all of the above )
141A bean burrito from Taco Bell contains 12 grams of protein. What percent of the Daily Value for protein does 1 burrito provide? ( 12%, 50%, 24%, 74% )
142Skipping meals is a good way to lose weight. ( true or false )
143Carbohydrates cause weight gain. ( true or false )
144Eating after 8 p.m. causes weight gain. ( true or false )
145How many calories do you need to burn in order to lose 1 pound of fat? ( 500, 1500, 2500, 3500 )
146Certain foods, like grapefruit, celery or cabbage soup, can burn fat and make you lose weight. ( true or false )
147You're always more likely to lose weight if you eat low-fat foods. ( true or false )
148Nuts are fattening and you shouldn't eat them if you want to lose weight. ( true or false )
149A serving size is: ( The amount of food on your plate, A specific amount of food measured in cups, ounces or pieces, The amount of food found in one package, All of the above )
150Becoming a vegetarian means you are sure to lose weight and be healthier. ( true or false )
151About how many calories are burned riding a bicycle for 30 minutes? ( 110, 270, 340, 520 )
152Fresh fruits and vegetables are more nutritious than frozen or canned. ( true or false )
153All herbal weight-loss supplements are safe and effective because they're natural. ( true or false )
154Starches are fattening and should be limited when trying to lose weight. ( true or false )
155A successful weight-loss program includes: ( Adequate nutrition, Reasonable weight-change goals, Your doctor's involvement, Lifestyle changes, All of the above )
156Which of the following foods burn fat and help you lose weight? ( Grapefruit, Cabbage soup, Celery, All of the above, None of the above )

Health and Fitness Quiz Answers:

NumberAnswers
1Weight training is correct. You want to train with weights when you have the most strength and energy. You also want to have a full level of glycogen for your workout. By doing cardio before weights, you will deplete your glycogen levels which will leave you burned out and tired before your weight training session. By weight training first, you use glycogen to fuel your muscles through the workout. Once you start your cardio workout, you will start tapping into your fat stores immediately. *A cardio session usually consists of 20-60 minutes. It's okay to do a little light cardio for about 5-10 minutes before your workout to warm up and get your blood flowing.
2True, unless you are fatigued from illness, lack of sleep or malnourished. Exercise is particularly effective against anxiety and mild depression.
3False. While resting metabolism is largely determined by age (it slows), genes (some people burn faster) or gender (women's rates are usually lower), the longer and more intensely you exercise, the greater your metabolic rate, at least temporarily. If you exercise regularly, you will increase muscle and decrease fat, resulting in an overall higher metabolism.
4True. Ice for 10 to 20 minutes immediately. Applying heat can increase inflammation the first couple of days.
5It doesn't matter. If you burn off more calories than you consume over the course of a week or two, you will start burning fat stores, even for daily activities.
6The kiwi has approximately 55 mg of vitamin C. It has more vitamin C than any other commercial fruit. Kiwi fruit hails from New Zealand. Named after a bird native there, kiwi is now grown in the United States, France, Italy, Spain, Israel, Chile, Australia, South Africa, and Russia. The fruit grows on a tall creeper, similar to a vine, and has brown, fuzzy skin and a bright green interior. The fruit is sweeter near its white center and small black edible seeds.
7If possible, attempt to do slow & long cardio first thing in the morning on an empty stomach. The reason for this is that your body's glycogen reserves have been exhausted due to the overnight fast, so the body has to rely on burning fats for fuel. *High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) cardio will require carbs to fuel your body through the vigorous session.
8Protein & low-to-moderate GI carbs before your weight training session. 20-50g protein (0.15-0.2g/lb target BW) whey is preferred for its BCAA content. 40-80g (0.33g/LB target BW) low-to-moderate GI carbs.
91 gram of protein per pound. Since your goal is to get bigger and build maximum muscle mass, you need to eat more protein. Extra protein will supply your body with the raw materials that it needs to add muscle tissue. Every gram of protein contains 4 calories.
10Explosive movements. Plyometrics is an excellent way for conditioned athletes to increase and develop their jumping, sprinting and explosive power.
11Pull your hamstring. Make sure to always train both your quads and hamstrings evenly during your leg workout. This creates proper muscle balance.
12False. When you deprive yourself of calories and fat, the food you eat is more likely to lead to weight gain. A better idea would be to listen to your body: if you're hungry, eat. If you reduce your intake to less than 1,000 calories per day, your body will react as though it is starving: it will slow its metabolism in order to conserve calories, and you may not lose any weight.
13False. A diet low in carbohydrates can be high in protein and fat. That may be unhealthy for your heart and arteries, among other organs. A low carb diet restricts the intake of grains that are healthy for the heart, fruits and vegetables, and may not be good for your general health. Restricting your intake of carbohydrates forces your body to metabolize fat or muscle for energy. Carbohydrates from whole-grain sources can actually help you lose weight because they contain plenty of fiber, which makes your body feel full and satisfied longer.
14False. Exercise results in weight loss when you burn more calories than you consume. Exercising may not show definite results if you burn fewer calories than you eat.
15Concentrically. A conventional repetition is usually performed with a cadence of one or two seconds on the concentric (lifting) movement and three or four seconds on the eccentric (lowering) movement.
16All of the above.
17Neural adaptations. You develop an increased ability to recruit more muscle fibers, you decrease neuromuscular inhibition, and there is increased coordination between the muscle groups.
18Protein contributes to 15%.
19190 calories. There are 4 calories in each gram of protein and each gram of carbohydrate. There are 9 calories in each gram of fat.
20Seated rows.
21The iliopsoas, made up of two distinct muscles - the psoas and the iliacus - is the only muscle that attaches the lumbar spine to the legs and plays a crucial role in walking freely and easily. It activates the legs, influences the mobility of the hip and the range of motion possible in the legs and feet, and at the same time massages the spinal column. When walking it also massages the vital organs of the body, and it also works with the diaphragm, functioning as a hydraulic pump to promote deep breathing, increase the blood circulation and invigorate cell functioning.
223-5 repetitions. Lower repetitions of an exercise will allow you to increase the overload to that muscle instantaneously. This forces the stimulation of new muscle fibers that will be recruited to handle the additional stresses that will be placed upon the muscle.
23Lifting resistance loads greater than 10RM.
24The Romanian Deadlift is a whole body multi joint exercise that involves all of the major muscle groups in the body similar to the deadlift.
2540 lbs of total fat mass. 20% of 200 equals 40.
26Dr. Dean Ornish recommends a low-fat, plant-based diet that uses fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, and soy products in their natural forms. This incorporates moderate quantities of egg whites and nonfat dairy or soy products and small amounts of sugar and white flour. These foods give you a double benefit: They are low in substances that are harmful and are rich in literally hundreds of substances that may be protective against heart disease and many other illnesses.
27Both whole and refined grains are high in carbohydrates. But whole grains do offer advantages. Whole grains contain all parts of the plant kernel, including the fiber-rich bran and the germ. Refined grains are stripped of these nutritious components during milling. Eating refined grains can drive blood sugar levels up quickly, while the fiber in whole grains slows a rise in blood sugar. Whole grains provide important nutrients, including B vitamins, vitamin E (a powerful antioxidant), and health-promoting phytochemicals like phytic acid and phytosterols. They form the foundation of a cancer-preventive, plant-based diet. Diets rich in whole grains also protect your health in other ways. The soluble fiber in whole grains like oats and barley may help lower blood cholesterol, and the insoluble fiber in whole wheat and bran helps keep the digestive tract healthy.
28Low carb diets were actually first discussed in the 1800s, and have been researched intensely since then.
29The GI stands for "Glycemic Index" and it measures how quickly a food causes your bloods sugar levels to rise.
30Beans have a much lower glycemic index value than instant rice.
31Fructose is more commonly found together with glucose and sucrose in honey and fruit juices. Fructose, along with glucose are the monosaccharides found in disaccharide, sucrose. Fructose is classified as a monosaccharide, the most important ketose sugar, a hexose, and is a reducing sugar. An older common name for fructose is levulose, after its levorotatory property of rotating plane polarized light to the left (in contrast to glucose which is dextrorotatory). Bees gather nectar from flowers which contains sucrose. They then use an enzyme to hydrolyze or break apart the sucrose into its component parts of glucose and fructose.
32Salad with low-fat dressing is your best option. But it's important to go easy on the cheese, croutons, and bacon bits as well as fatty dressings like ranch and creamy Italian. While a no-bun burger limits your intake of no-nutrient carbs, you're still loading up on what is probably not the highest-quality red meat. The baked potato - even without sour potato - even a whopping number of carbohydrates (71 or 73), while the barbecue chicken sandwich weighs in with 43 gram of carbs.
33The government has not legally defined the term "low carbohydrate" like it has "low calorie" or "reduced fat," so consumers may fall prey to marketing claims when they try to meet certain dietary guidelines. Looking for a better gauge? The Institute of Medicine, the organization that sets the recommended daily intake of nutrients, recommends that adults and children strive for 130 grams of carbs a day - a number that most people surpass, often by double or triple. Become a label sleuth and limit yourself to 100 to 150 g of carbs. And follow the lead of the South Beach Diet: pass on "bad" carbs like chips, soda, and packaged baked goods and instead reach for such "good" carbs as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
34The glycemic index ranks foods by how fast and how high they cause blood sugar to rise after eating a particular food. Low-GI foods (which score less than 55) produce a gradual rise in blood sugar that's easier on the body. Examples include artichokes, peppers, and apples, as well as old-fashioned oatmeal and kidney beans. Foods scoring between 55 and 70 - such as sweet corn, rice, and beets - are considered intermediate-GI foods. On the high end are foods (ranking higher than 70) that make blood sugar (as well as insulin levels) spike fast. Think bagels, french fries, and mashed potatoes.
35While each of these diets varies in its recommendation of how many carbs (and what types) to consume, Atkins is the most restrictive. In the first phase of this diet, participants drastically limit their intake of carbs so that the body, in the absence of this type of fuel, will turn to burning fat - a process that is called ketosis. The Zone purports that by eating the right balance of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats (in a ratio of 40:30:30) at each meal, you will lose weight. South Beach guidelines, on the other hand, are more moderate, emphasizing eating "healthy" carbs like fruits, veggies, and whole grains and "healthy" fats, while limiting refined bread products and sugar. Weight Watchers is not a low-carb diet at all. It focuses on portion control, assigning foods a specific "Point" value. The idea is that an individual who stays within a certain point range will lose or maintain weight regardless of whether she piles high- or low-carb foods on her plate.
36Some carbohydrate can be digested by your body but not turned into glucose (glycerin is one example), and some carbohydrate is not digestible at all, such as fiber, and is therefore eventually excreted by your body. These last two types of carbohydrate don't have an impact on your blood-sugar levels. Understanding the different behavior of carbohydrate in your body can help you make smart food choices.
37A glass of wine packs only 2 to 3 grams of carbohydrates in a glass. Try to avoid beer because it contains maltose, the sugar with the highest glycemic index. (What about those new low-carb beers, you might ask? They often contain virtually the same number of calories and carbs as light beers, only they have a heftier price tag.
38All of these foods are acceptable on a low carb diet.
39Carbs are carbohydrates - the sugars and starches in food. Processed foods like jelly donuts are notoriously high in carbs.
40Always get an initial blood test and physical exam before starting a low carb diet plan.
41Fructose, the sugar found in fruit, has a low GI (glycemic index) of 23.
42Trans Fatty Acids are a modern invention, meant to let fat sit on the shelves for years on end. It should be avoided at all costs.
43Many people gain weight because they scarf down huge plates of pasta or other carb-laden foods, but a calorie is a calorie, and if you consume too many, you will tip the scales - whether you're noshing on chicken or capellini.
44Mounting research suggests that consuming more low-GI foods (and thus keeping your blood sugar from spiking) helps stave off heart disease, prevents type 2 diabetes, helps you evade serious side effects if you have diabetes, and curbs your appetite so you lose weight.
45If you severely restrict carbs, your body goes into a state of ketosis - burning fat with the subsequent production of ketone bodies in the bloodstream. The condition is called "ketonuria" if ketones are spilled out into the urine. The result of ketosis is that your blood sugar levels stabilize; your insulin level drops; and because your body is burning fat, you lose weight!
46Low carb is about choosing foods that are low in sugar and starch. Most veggies are perfect! Low carbers eat a TON of veggies - just not sweet corn, carrots, potatoes, and high sugar ones.
47Table sugar (sucrose) has a lower GI (glycemic index) than white bread.
48You'll rack up the fewest carb points by opting for this menu. Surprised? As long as you stick with a lean cut of beef like London broil (broiled porterhouse, sirloin, and T-bone are also good options), red meat is fair game. Sweet potatoes and broccoli rabe, two healthy, low-carb veggies, keep the score low on the GI scale.
49Of the above-mentioned choices, the oatmeal cookie deserves top dessert status, racking up only 10 carb points. Strawberries dipped in dark chocolate (which packs in the antioxidants) come in second. The other choices are best enjoyed rarely-and in small doses.
50The term "net carb" has not been evaluated by the government, even though it's used on many food labels and by supermarkets to sell low-carb products. Don't be a victim to this marketing ploy.
51Before and during your workout, not only is slow, static stretching unhelpful, it can actually lead to injuries and poor performance. Before your workout you should do five to ten minutes of some type of aerobic warm-up to get your muscles ready. During the workout, make sure to keep your muscles warm and ready to go. Slow, static stretching is recommended for after your workout (although for athletes, more active stretching is recommended). It will aid in cooling your muscles down, returning them to their normal resting length, reducing soreness, etc.
52According to the American Heart Association, there are up to 250,000 deaths per year in the United States that are due to a lack of regular physical activity. This accounts for about 12 percent of total deaths in the U.S. Physical activity is necessary in order to maintain a healthy weight and cardiovascular and musculo-skeletal fitness. The body muscle and tissue in inactive people are replaced by fat. Each decade after the age of 35, people lose three to five percent of their muscles, glands, and organs with most body functions declining by one percent each year. They begin to age at an ever-increasing rate and are increasingly susceptible to new risk factors for health problems. In order to counteract these affects, it is therefore essential to make exercise an integral part of your life. Physical inactivity might not seem to be a problem when you're young, but the consequences become evident when you reach adulthood. Heart disease, diabetes and other chronic diseases are all linked to a lack of physical activity.
53Exercise is beneficial at any age as long as the exercise regimen is tailored to the specific needs of the person. Exercise helps with osteoporosis, balance and coordination, energy levels, quality of life, length of life, mood, and much more. In fact, rebuilding muscles is the secret of rejuvenation. The loss of muscle mass and strength is the underlying cause of almost every outward sign of aging. Therefore, when you rebuild muscle, you regain youthfulness, stamina, energy, and vigor. However, some people should check with their doctor to make sure that their exercise regimen is safe for them. You should definitely check with your doctor if: (1) you are middle-aged or older (2) you have a heart condition and your physical activity should be medically supervised (3) your chest has been hurting for about a month (4) you have a medical condition, such as insulin-dependent diabetes, that requires special attention in an exercise program (5) you are taking medicine for your heart and/or blood pressure (6) you get pains in your chest, left side of your neck, or your left shoulder or arm when you exercise (7) you have bone or joint problems that a doctor told you could be worsened by exercise (8) you tend to get dizzy, lose consciousness, and fall (9) mild exertion leaves you breathless.
54Putting on weight can actually be a good sign! You might have lessened your body fat, while adding lean muscle-both signs that you're headed in the right direction. Scales aren't necessarily good indicators of your fitness level, instead concentrate on body part measurements and your body fat percentage. A healthy body fat percentage falls between 5 and 40 percent. Females have more body fat than males (women's body fat should not be less than 15 percent whereas men's body fat should not be less than 5 percent). Keep in mind that having a very low fat percentage is not necessarily something to strive for. Most athletes perform better in the low-fat rather than the very low-fat range.
55It is important to tailor your exercise routine to your personal needs. Someone who has never exercised before should not start off trying to follow the same routine as someone who's been exercising for his or her entire life. Even walking the dog for ten minutes can be a good way to get started. It is important to exercise at a pace that, while challenging to you, does not lead to over-exhaustion. Let your body get used to exercising and injury will be averted. Here is a list of signs of over training to watch for: *Muscle soreness/tenderness *Decreased performance *Loss of coordination *Decreased ability to ward off infection *Gastrointestinal disturbances *Loss of appetite *Headaches *Elevated morning heart rate *Prolonged recovery.
56Exercise can actually help asthmatics to reduce stress, sleep better and feel more energized. It is important to begin with a low-intensity routine. As tolerance for physical exertion is built up, the possibility of an asthmatic attack during exercise decreases. Here are some tips for safe exercising if you have asthma: *It is essential that you get thoroughly evaluated by your doctor before beginning any exercise regime. Your doctor might prescribe medication to ensure your safety while exercising. *It is preferable to exercise toward the lower end of your target heart rate. Walking and swimming are good exercises that can be done for long periods of time but are also low intensity. If, however, you do want to exercise at a higher intensity, slowly increase your intensity over time. Following is a list of activities in order from most to least likely to induce an asthma attack: -outdoor running -treadmill running -cycling -walking -pool swimming *Do a slow cool down. This can help prevent asthma attacks that might occur immediately following exercise. A warm bath or shower is also a good idea.
57While testosterone is a factor in muscle development, muscle size increase is largely determined by the particular person's genetic predisposition to getting big muscles. Our genes determine what types of muscle fibers we have and where they are distributed, our ratio of testosterone to estrogen, and where we store body fat. Our genes therefore determine our body type. If you are someone with a body type that tends to bulk up, here is a way to exercise while keeping your size small: Strength training is designed on the principle that by overloading the muscle, you increase its size. If you are training aerobically, your own body weight is used to overload your muscles. Step/bench training or stair stepping uses the weight of the body in order to challenge your muscles. Increasing the height of the step or adding power movements increases the overload. Therefore, in order to keep your muscles small, reduce the step height or lower the impact of the movements. The overload on the muscles is reduced, yet you still gain the aerobic value of the workout.
58At about 3 p.m. some of your hormone levels peak, making this an optimal time period for weight loss. Also, the late afternoon is a good time to achieve high performance. At this time, flexibility, strength, endurance, and the ability to handle pain are at their highest. Working out at this time may also improve your sleep patterns. Just a half-hour of exercise will help you go to sleep faster and more soundly. However, try to leave at least two hours between your workout and your bedtime. Exercise right before bed can keep you awake and start a damaging cycle of exhaustion. Depending on your needs and goals, the morning can also be a good time for exercise. It can have an energizing effect by increasing your heartbeat and your alertness. Another plus-air pollution levels are typically at their daily low in the morning. Note however, that you should take extra time to warm up muscles and stretch in order to prevent injury. In the end, though, the best time to exercise is the time that is most conducive to you sticking with an exercise schedule. Ultimately, being active is more important than the time of day.
59Although strenuous exercise does improve aerobic capacity far more than light or moderate workouts do, in other areas, light exercise is just as good, if not better. Non-strenuous exercise reduces stress, blood pressure, and anxiety just as much as strenuous exercise does. Furthermore, the risk of developing certain diseases such as coronary heart disease and cancer are only slightly lower for heavy exercisers than for moderate exercisers. In terms of weight control, moderate exercises such as walking are just as effective as vigorous exercises such as jogging. In this case, the amount of calories burned depends not on how fast the person goes, but on the distance covered. Actually, light exercise is potentially more effective than vigorous exercise because most people can walk more than they can run.
60A combination of strength training and aerobic exercise is ideal for the health of your heart. While strength training can reduce levels of LDL cholesterol (which clogs your arteries), aerobic exercise improves the HDL (which cleans your arteries). Strength training may even help reduce blood pressure (however, if you have hypertension, check with your doctor before beginning strength training as straining can temporarily increase your blood pressure). Strength training also becomes important in fortifying the muscles and so protecting yourself against a heart attack brought on by sudden or unaccustomed exertion.
61Most dieting does NOT result in permanent weight loss. The only things that help keep off the pounds are permanent life-style changes.
62If you're like most people, the problems in your diet stem from more than one source. The Center for Science in the Public Interest suggests cutting back just a few of your diet weaknesses rather than trying to implement an unsustainable diet overhaul. It recommends cutting out processed meats such as hot dogs, sausage and bacon, avoiding ground beef, and limiting the amount of full-fat cheese you eat.
63Water is a secret weapon in the war against extra pounds. It helps keep you feeling full, encouraging you to eat less, and it also helps with digestion and assimilation of nutrients so that you aren't chronically hungry.
64Yo-Yo dieting is one of the worst things you can do. Most people who go on and off diets, after ten years, weigh more than when they started to diet.
65Exercise only results in weight loss if you burn more calories than you consume. It makes no difference how much you exercise if you are burning fewer calories than you're eating.
66Since muscle weighs more than the same volume of fat, getting in shape with diet and exercise may actually cause a gain in pounds, as fat is burned away and muscle mass increases. Yet even with this weight gain, your size can decrease, because muscle is more compact than fat. This means that the numbers on the scale may not give you a full picture of how you're doing. A better way to measure what kind of shape you're in is through your Body Mass Index.
67When dieters deprive themselves of calories and fat, then the food they do eat is more likely to lead to weight gain. Always listen to your body. If you're hungry, eat. If you reduce your intake to less than 1,000 calories per day, your body will react as though it is starving: it will slow its metabolism in order to conserve calories, and you will not lose any weight at all.
68Although 90 percent of the eight million Americans affected by anorexia and bulimia are female, most of them girls, the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders (ANAD) reports that cases of male anorexia are becoming increasingly prevalent. ANAD also notes that while most anorexics and bulimics develop eating disorders in their teens, a significant number are now in their upper 20s, 30s, 40s or older. And the age at which many individuals develop eating disorders is also decreasing, as more cases involving children between the ages of eight and 11 are reported every year.
69Increased muscle mass actually speeds up your metabolism and tells your body to burn more calories. In addition to burning calories and building muscle, lifting weights can preserve some of the muscle mass that is typically lost with dieting. Many women's fears that lifting weights will make them look bigger than ever are misplaced, and that in conjunction with cardiovascular exercise, weight training will slim you down faster than cardiovascular exercise alone.
70Your weight is related directly to the balance between the calories you consume and the calories you expend. If you eat more calories than you burn, those calories are stored and you gain weight. Conversely, if you burn more calories than you eat, you lose weight.
71Although it's important to restrict fat, saturated fat and cholesterol consumption to lose weight, 30 percent of your total calories should come from fat, according to the American Dietetic Association. Many dieters make the mistake of replacing fatty foods with those high in sugar, which typically contain many calories and few nutrients.
72The American Dietetic Association recommends avoiding diets that promise fast and easy weight loss because they are usually not healthy or effective. Reaching a healthy weight takes time, and a change in lifestyle and can't be achieved by simply eliminating - or only eating - certain foods. Keeping weight off once you've lost it is no easy feat and requires continued efforts in eating and exercise. The only truly healthy way to lose weight is through "an eating plan that includes a variety of foods and is easy to live with - even after the pounds come off - along with regular physical activity," says the American Dietetic Association. The only safe way to speed up your metabolism is to exercise while making sure you're consuming enough calories to keep your body in motion. With a healthy diet and fitness routine, it's possible lose one to two pounds each week; more rapid weight loss is unhealthy.
73After you do the same workout for a few months, your body gets used to it and stops burning the same amount of calories that it once did. In order to avoid hitting a plateau, you should vary the kinds of exercise you do, incorporate short bursts of intense activity into your normal routine, and add a few minutes to your routine.
74A diet low in carbohydrates is necessarily high in protein and fat - an unhealthy combination for your heart and arteries, among other organs. A low-carb diet restricts the intake of heart-healthy grains, fruits and vegetables and may compromise your general health. Restricting your intake of carbohydrates through the Atkins diet or other carbohydrate-restricting diets forces your body to metabolize fat or muscle for energy. Carbohydrates from whole-grain sources can actually help you lose weight because they contain plenty of fiber, which makes your body feel full and satisfied longer.
75It really makes no difference at all if you do your daily exercise in bits and pieces over the course of the day or all at once. The important part is that you actually do exercise! Break up your workout into 10-minute modules.
76According to a 2002 study in the American Academy of Family Physicians: The frequency of nicotine use was associated with an increased risk of alcohol dependency and substance abuse, but not with major depressive disorders.
77Women who could become pregnant should take a multivitamin with 400 mcg, the Daily Value for folate. That amount helps prevent neural tube birth defects. Though more studies are needed, the same level also appears to cut the risk of heart disease, stroke, and colon cancer.
78In younger people, all but the vegetables would be a good source of B-12 (which is only found in animal foods). But if you're over 55, your stomach might not produce enough acid to extract the B-12 from food. To play it safe, take a daily dose of 25 mcg, the amount in many supplements for seniors.
79Vitamin B-12 deficiency can cause irreversible nerve damage. If you have any of the symptoms (other than excessive thirst), get your B-12 blood levels checked. Anemia can also be a sign of B-12 deficiency, but you can get nerve damage without anemia. (Excessive thirst could be a sign of diabetes.)
80The B-vitamins - like other water-soluble nutrients - are usually safe at high doses. B-6 is the exception. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) was set at 100 mg because higher daily doses can cause a (reversible) nerve toxicity that leads to difficulty walking, clumsiness, numbness, or burning, shooting, or tingling pains. The Daily Value for B-6 is only 2 mg.
81People who consume more vitamin B-6 (about 4.6 mg a day), folate (at least 400 mcg a day), or vitamin E (at least 100 IU a day) have a lower risk of heart attacks. Vitamin B-6 and folate may protect the heart by lowering blood levels of homocysteine. None of the research is definitive, though. Clear answers about vitamin E may come from clinical trials that are under way to see if it can prevent heart attacks.
82In a study of people who already had precancerous colon polyps, taking 1,200 mg of calcium a day cut the risk of new polyps by 24 percent. However, preliminary evidence suggests that men who consumed 2,000 mg of calcium a day - from food or supplements - had a higher risk of prostate cancer than men who consumed lower levels. Until we know more, men shouldn't assume that more calcium is better.
83Each cup of cooked broccoli has 70 mg of calcium, so you'd need 17 cups to get a day's worth of calcium (not that you need to get all your calcium from a single food). Collards (with 230 mg per cup) and cooked frozen kale (with 180 mg per cup) are richer sources.
84In 1997, the National Academy of Sciences set an Upper Tolerable Intake Level (UL) for calcium of 2,500 mg a day. Too much calcium can cause kidney stones, high blood calcium, or impaired absorption of iron, zinc, or magnesium. But 2,500 mg a day isn't a target. Shoot for 1,000 mg a day if you're 19 to 50 and 1,200 mg a day if you're older than 50.
85In a recent study in Boston, half of the women with hip fractures were deficient in vitamin D. So far, only one study has found slower progression of arthritis in people with low D levels.
86Milk - not other dairy products - is one of the few good sources of vitamin D. Even cereals with 100 percent of the Daily Value for other vitamins and minerals don't supply much D. Experts recommend 200 IU a day if you're 19 to 50, 400 IU a day if you're 51 to 70, and 600 IU a day if you're older than 70. As people age, their skin gets less efficient at making vitamin D when exposed to the sun. You can't get enough vitamin D from the sun in the winter unless you live in the Southern US
87Avoiding overweight and limiting alcohol (to no more than one drink a day for women; two for men) also keep blood pressure from rising.
88Fruits and vegetables, especially beans (except green beans), are the best sources. Whole grains have more than their refined cousins (almost all rye breads are refined), but even whole- wheat bread isn't loaded with potassium. Bran cereals are a better source. Most multivitamin-and-mineral supplements and fortified breakfast cereals don't supply much potassium.
89Too little iron can impair memory and learning in adolescent girls (iron deficiency is less common in boys). But too much may raise the risk of cancer and heart disease. About one in 250 Americans has the genes for iron overload, or hemochromatosis, which can damage the liver, heart, brain, pancreas, and other organs. To play it safe, get your blood ferritin checked. If you're male or postmenopausal, look for a multivitamin that supplies no more than 10 mg of iron a day. The 18 mg in most multis is the recommended allowance for teenage boys.
90It's clear that extra pounds raise the risk of diabetes. Exercise lowers the risk, even if you're not overweight. The evidence for fiber-rich foods and magnesium, while promising, is shakier.
91In separate clinical trials, men who took 200 mcg of selenium or 50 IU of vitamin E every day had a lower risk of prostate cancer. Studies are under way to duplicate those results. There are no trials on lycopene or red meat. However, men who eat less red meat - and less animal fat - seem to have a lower risk. Ditto for men who have higher blood levels of lycopene or who eat more lycopene-rich tomato-containing foods, especially cooked foods like tomato sauce.
92Almonds are the best of the bunch, with 11 IU in three tablespoons. But only supplements have the amounts that may help reduce the risk of heart disease (100 IU a day) or prostate cancer (50 IU a day).
93Zinc can impair the immune system at daily doses as low as 50 mg (in addition to the 15 mg in a typical diet). Vitamin A can cause liver damage and possibly birth defects at daily doses of 10,000 IU or more. Vitamin B-6 can cause (reversible) nerve damage at doses of 200 mg or more.
94The current Daily Value is 60 mg, but some vitamin-C experts think that intakes should be at least 100 mg or, more likely, 200 mg. If you eat the eight to ten servings of fruits and vegetables a day that we recommend, you should get at least 200 mg. So far there is no Upper Tolerable Intake Level (UL) for vitamin C. It should be 1,000 mg a day, some argue, because more than that may raise the risk of kidney stones.
95Most people know that calcium and vitamin D are crucial for strong bones. But it's also important to get enough vitamin K. Women should shoot for 65 mcg a day, while men need 80 mcg. Green leafy vegetables are the best source. Most people get sufficient fluoride from fluoridated water.
96There is no good way to test for zinc deficiency. Instead, researchers give people more zinc and see if it improves the symptoms of a deficiency - diminished taste, wounds that take long to heal, or recurring infections that don't clear up easily. As for the other nutrients, it's worth getting your blood tested for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum ferritin (to see if you get too little or too much iron), and vitamin B-12.
97Seafood is the most reliable food source of selenium. The selenium content of other foods varies depending on where they were grown. If you want to get 200 mcg a day - the amount that may cut the risk of cancer - the safest way is to take a supplement.
98As little as 10,000 IU a day of vitamin A may raise the risk of birth defects when taken by pregnant women and may cause liver damage when taken by older people for 10 to 15 years. Beta-carotene doesn't cause birth defects or liver damage, but two studies found an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers who took 33,000 IU to 50,000 IU (20 mg to 30 mg) of beta-carotene a day for several years. In contrast, beta-carotene-rich foods, like carrots, sweet potatoes, and cantaloupe, are linked to a lower risk of lung cancer.
99When sedentary older people were told to exercise for 45 minutes a day, those who were given vitamin E had fewer signs of muscle damage than those who took a placebo. The study used 800 IU a day, but as little as 200 IU to 400 IU may be sufficient.
100Most fruits are not especially rich in magnesium. Nor are most vegetables, except for leafy greens and dry beans. Whole (not refined) grains and milk or yogurt can help you reach 320 mg (women) or 420 mg (men) a day. Most multivitamin-and-mineral supplements and fortified breakfast cereals supply only about 100 mg per serving.
101So far, the evidence is strongest that phosphatidyl serine (PS) can boost memory in healthy people with greater-than-normal, age-related losses.
102Claudia Schiffer eats lightly at dinner (salad and steamed vegetables) and eats nothing but fruits before noon. She is often seen on location snacking on tomato juice, black grapes and herbal tea.
103Jennifer Aniston used to weigh 30 pounds more than her now svelte 112 pounds. This 5 '5" Friend stopped eating mayonnaise sandwiches and fried foods, and discovered the health benefits of low-fat foods.
104Ashley Judd maintains her 5' 7", 125-pound figure with a heavy vegetable diet and by staying away from dairy foods. She begins her day with a drink of hot water and lemon and uses soy milk in her cereal.
105Actress Minnie Driver relies on spirituality. She has been able to conquer a 30-pound weight gain and self-loathing to become one of the best success stories (and bodies) in Hollywood.
106It's hard to believe that gorgeous actress/comedienne Lisa Kudrow eats whatever she wants and yet stays a curvy 5'7" and 123 pounds. Her secret is listening to her body, and differentiating between cravings, physical hunger and body satisfaction. Lisa claims that there is an inner voice that tells her when she's had enough to eat.
107A healthy lifestyle is the hallmark of longtime model Christie Brinkley's all-American body. This fish-eating vegetarian keeps junk food out of the house to ensure that when weight gains occur, snacking is done on sweet potatoes and not candy bars.
108Demi Moore keeps her system cleaned out by drinking herb teas and vitamins. "Having teas between meals fills me up while the vitamins keep me going," she says.
109Niki Taylor gained a self-admitted 70 pounds during her pregnancy, going from a size 6 to a 20. With self-determination and discipline, she lost it all, and was back on the runway after only 3 months. Niki is an avid runner, and is known to favor a mostly vegetable diet devoid of any dressings or sauces.
110Cindy Crawford tends to gain weight in the buttocks area. That's one reason why she reportedly avoids dairy products. She has stayed at the top of her field because she treats her body as a direct reflection of her success.
111Jane Seymour satisfies her sweet tooth with frozen fruit bars. She had no problem getting her 5'4" figure back after delivering twins.
112Actress Melanie Griffith is a busy mom, and can't always get to a health club. She keeps her 5 '9", 118-20 pound figure by biking, swimming, walking, and running. She concentrates on eating right, and drinks bottled water and juices throughout the day. Melanie believes in supplementing her diet with vitamins and minerals. She changes them from time to time, depending on what her body is needing.
113Who doesn't admire Julia Roberts' long streamlined body? Although she swears that she doesn't do anything "special" to maintain her 5'10", 120 pounds, during filming she is known for downing 8 glasses of water a day.
114TV presenter Claire Sweeney readily admits that she's no natural bean pole, but these days maintains her nine-and-a-half-stone figure by following an online diet plan. After trying every diet going, including a detox plan, which she stuck out for just four days, and Atkins, which she says made her lose energy and gave her a kidney infection, Claire signed up to Weight Watchers online.
115Formerly a strict vegetarian, Drew now occasionally eats meat but says 'I don't eat a ton of meat, but if I feel my body needs some, then I'll eat it. I don't put strict limitations on myself anymore, if I want something, I'll have it but in moderation.' As well as being sensible and eating three meals a day, consisting mostly of organic fruit and vegetables, Drew satisfies her sweet tooth with Diet Coke and low-fat jelly.
116After supermodel Heidi Klum gave birth to daughter Leni earlier this year, she stunned fans by slipping back into her svelte frocks just weeks after the birth. So how did she do it? As well as sticking to a moderate but sensible daily 1700-2000 calories a day (any lower is not a good idea for new mums) and working out at the gym at least three times a week, Heidi took weekly photos of herself in the buff so she could spot the way her body was changing.
117All of these items can predispose you to allergies.
118Hypersensitivity of the immune system causes an allergic response. When antibodies are formed in response to an allergen, they trigger a release of histamine which then affects different parts of the body.
119Patients with significant reactions to common or unavoidable substances can receive regular shots with gradually increasing doses of the substance. The body will gradually get used to the substance resulting in a reduced allergic response.
120Oral antihistamines are the hallmark of therapy for allergy symptoms such as hives. Serious reactions that involve difficulty breathing and low blood pressure often require the addition of corticosteroids and epinephrine to antihistamine drugs.
121Allergies affect over 20% of school age children and are frequently under-diagnosed. Reducing exposure to several potential allergens can help reduce the severity of childhood allergies.
122All of the these symptoms (itching in the mouth, drop in blood pressure, dark circles under the eyes and trouble breathing) are possible allergy symptoms.
123Cigarette smoke can be both dangerous and bothersome. And while it can result in some allergy-like symptoms in some people - including sneezing, runny nose and watery eyes - these responses aren't a result of a true allergic response involving antibodies.
124Allergies have a genetic component. If only one parent has allergies, you have a 33 percent chance of developing them yourself. If both parents have allergies, you have a 70 percent chance.
125It's not uncommon for children to outgrow an allergy to milk. Peanuts, shellfish and pollen, on the other hand, are more likely to be allergy triggers for their entire lives.
126About 35 million Americans are allergic to airborne pollen while only 10 million are allergic to cats and two million to insect stings. Even fewer people have true food allergies.
127Damp dusting using a dampened cloth or an oiled mop will minimize the distribution of dust through the air.
128Space heaters are preferred over hot air ducts. In homes with forced air heat, use filters or damp cheesecloth over inlets to reduce dust circulation. Change every two weeks. Consult your physician about air purifiers. Keep beds away from air vents.
129Install central air conditioning or window units. Keep windows closed, especially during periods of high pollen counts and windy conditions. Grasses, weeds, and trees tend to pollinate during the early morning hours. Sleep with the windows closed.
130Use allergen-proof encasings for pillows, mattresses, and box springs. Tape over zippers to help prevent leaks. Vacuum all casings frequently. Store nothing under the bed.
131When choosing furnishings, it is best to go with wood, leather, vinyl, or rubberized canvas furniture and avoid upholstered pieces. Upholstery easily traps allergens and is much harder to clean. You might try washable slipcovers on existing upholstered furniture.
132Vegans eat only plant-based food. This means they consume no meat, poultry, or fish, nor animal products such as milk, cheese, butter, and eggs.
133Peanuts, along with beans and peas, belong to the single plant family, Leguminosae. Legumes are edible seeds enclosed in pods. As a group, they provide the best source of concentrated protein in the plant kingdom. While their physical structure and nutritional benefits more closely resemble that of other legumes, their use in diets and cuisines more closely resembles that of nuts.
134Energy comes mainly from carbohydrates.
135Proteins are highly complex molecules comprised of linked amino acids. Amino acids are simple compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and occasionally sulphur. There are about 20 different amino acids commonly found in plant and animal proteins. Amino acids link together to form chains called peptides. A typical protein may contain 500 or more amino acids. Each protein has it's own unique number and sequence of amino acids which determines it's particular structure and function.
136As with other nutrients, the body prefers to be provided with protein in a balance that optimizes body functioning. If too little or too much protein is taken in, then the body has to react to maintain a balance. Getting too much protein can overwork the kidneys because the products from the breakdown of protein that are not converted to fat are disposed of through the kidneys. If the body does not get enough protein it cannot build and repair tissues or produce substances which require protein such as antibodies, enzymes, and hormones. This in turn can compromise the body's immune system, leaving it more susceptible to infections; or it can slow down bodily processes as well as impair growth and repair.
137There are 4 calories in 1 gram of protein. Carbs also have 4 calories but fat has 9 calories per gram.
138The correct answer is False. Every protein, whether in the body or food, has a unique profile (hence, amount) of the 20 amino acids.
139The correct answer is 48 grams/day. 60 kg x 0.8 grams protein/kg per day = 48 grams/day.
140The correct answer is all of the above. All of these foods provide complete protein (contains all 9 essential amino acids in amounts proportional to need).
141The correct answer is 24%. 12 grams / 50 grams x 100 = 24.
142Your body needs a certain amount of calories and nutrients each day in order to work properly. If you skip meals during the day, you will more likely make up for the missing calories by snacking or eating more at the next meal.
143Carbohydrates in and of themselves don't make you gain weight. Excess calories do. Some weight-loss plans & such as the Atkins diet or South Beach diet & claim that carbohydrates contribute to obesity by stimulating insulin secretion, which promotes body fat. Carbohydrates do stimulate insulin secretion immediately after eating them, but this is the normal process that allows carbohydrates to be absorbed into cells. People don't gain weight on high-carbohydrate diets unless they're eating excess calories. And excess calories from any source cause weight gain.
144It doesn't matter what time of day you eat, it's how much you eat during the whole day and how much exercise you get that make you gain or lose weight.
145If your body uses 3,500 calories more than you take in, you lose a pound of fat. You can lose weight two ways - by eating fewer calories or by increasing the number of calories your body uses through physical activity. The best way to lose weight is to combine both. However, decreasing calorie intake appears to play a greater role in promoting weight loss. A slow, steady approach is safest and much more likely to be permanent. Aim to lose 1 to 2 pounds a week. To do this, create a calorie deficit of 500 to 1,000 calories a day through a low-calorie diet and regular exercise. Losing weight more rapidly means losing water weight or muscle tissue rather than fat.
146No foods can burn fat. Some foods with caffeine may speed up your metabolism (the way your body uses energy, or calories) for a short time, but they do not cause weight loss.
147Used incorrectly, even a low-fat diet can lead to weight gain. That happens if you cut back on fat but take in excess calories by increasing the rest of what you eat. Too many calories from any source result in added pounds. Low-fat, reduced-fat and "lite" foods may be low & or at least lower & in fat as compared with their counterparts. But carefully check food labels for both fat and total calories. Some processed foods touted as low fat are high in calories and offer little nutritional value. Fruits and vegetables, on the other hand, are naturally low in fat as well as calories. To avoid the pitfall, pay attention to fat, calories and nutrients in all of the foods you eat. All three are important: looking only at the fat grams doesn't tell you all you need to know.
148Although high in calories and fat, most (but not all) types of nuts have low amounts of saturated fat. Saturated fat is the kind of fat that can lead to high blood cholesterol levels and increase the risk of heart disease.
149A serving size is a specific amount of food, defined by common measurements such as cups, ounces or pieces. For example, the Food Guide Pyramid developed by the Department of Agriculture and Department of Health and Human Services says that one serving of pasta is 1/2 cup or about the size of an ice cream scoop. Keep track of the number of servings you eat & and use proper serving sizes & to help control the number of calories you consume.
150Vegetarian diets can be healthy because they are often lower in saturated fat and cholesterol and higher in fiber. Choosing a vegetarian diet with a low fat content can be helpful for weight loss. But vegetarians - like non-vegetarians - can also make poor food choices, like eating large amounts of junk (nutritionally-empty) foods.
151If you weigh 150 pounds, you burn about 270 calories riding a bicycle for 30 minutes at moderate intensity. The intensity and length of your workout and your weight all affect the number of calories you burn. Different activities burn varying amounts of calories. For example, walking at a moderate pace (3 mph) for an hour burns about 225 calories, and swimming laps burns about 480 calories an hour. Even though aerobic exercise is best for losing fat, any extra movement helps burn calories. Walking, gardening, lawn mowing and even housework all help burn calories.
152Most fruits and vegetables (produce) are naturally low in fat and calories. Frozen and canned fruits and vegetables can be just as nutritious as fresh.
153You may think herbal supplements are safe, but many contain active ingredients that can harm you if taken with certain prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Some of these products can even cause serious problems on their own. For example, ephedra (ma-huang) and other products that contain a plant-derived chemical (ephedrine) can cause dangerous side effects, including heart attacks, seizures, strokes and sudden death. In late December 2003, the Food and Drug Administration announced the ban of ephedra from the marketplace because of health concerns.
154Potatoes, rice, pasta, bread, beans and some vegetables (like squash, yams, sweet potatoes, turnips, beets and carrots) are rich in complex carbohydrates (also called starch). Starch is an important source of energy for your body. Foods high in starch become high in fat and calories when you eat them with large amounts of sauces, cheeses and other high-fat toppings.
155All of these elements are crucial for a successful weight-loss program. To lose weight and keep it off long term, find a weight-loss program that emphasizes: Safety. Safe weight-management plans ensure that you get adequate nutrition. Although diets may be low in calories, they should still provide balanced nutrition and not rely heavily on supplements. Reasonable weight-change goals. In general, weight loss should be slow and steady. Rapid weight loss, particularly in the first week or two of a diet, is mainly loss of fluid not fat. Doctor involvement. Consult your doctor if you plan to go on a low-calorie diet or plan to lose more than 15 to 20 pounds. In addition, check with your doctor before going on any weight-loss plan if you have health problems or regularly take prescription medications. Lifestyle changes. Losing weight does little good if you don't keep it off. Programs should help you improve eating and exercise habits so that you can maintain a healthy weight.
156Despite what some products or weight-loss plans claim, no foods burn fat. Fad diets, such as the grapefruit diet or the cabbage soup diet, claim to promote quick and easy weight loss. You may lose weight following one of these plans, but any pounds you drop are either the result of cutting calories or are from fluid loss & not from any fat-burning properties in foods. Fad diets don't offer a permanent, healthy solution to losing weight. Once you stop the diet, you'll likely gain the pounds back. And fad diets won't improve your long-term health. Although more traditional recommendations for weight management may seem old-fashioned, time-consuming or difficult, they lead to improved health and permanent weight loss.

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